Latino Federation .ORG
Overview (Demographics): This ethnic group includes
any person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin,
regardless of race. According to the 2019 U.S. Census Bureau population estimate, there are 60.5 million Hispanics
living in the United States. This group represents 18.4 percent of the U.S. total population. In 2019, among
Hispanic subgroups, Mexicans ranked as the largest at 61.4 percent. Following this group are: Puerto Ricans (9.6
percent), Central Americans (9.8 percent), South Americans (6.4 percent), and Cubans (3.9 percent). In 2019, states
with the largest Hispanic populations were California, Texas, Florida, New York, Arizona, Illinois, New Jersey,
Colorado, Georgia, New Mexico. Another significant point is that in 2019, 30.8 percent of Hispanics were under the
age 18 in comparison to 18.6 percent of non-Hispanic whites.
Language Fluency: Language fluency
varies among Hispanic subgroups who reside within the mainland United States. Census 2019 data shows that 71.1
percent of Hispanics speak a language other than English at home: 70.4 percent of Mexicans, 58.9 percent of Puerto
Ricans, 77.7 percent of Cubans, 86.2 percent of Central Americans. 28.4 percent of Hispanics state that they are
not fluent in English.
Educational Attainment: According to a
2019 U.S. Census Bureau report, 70.5 percent of Hispanics in comparison to 93.3 percent non-Hispanic whites had a
high school diploma or higher. 17.6 percent of Hispanics in comparison to 36.9 percent of non-Hispanic whites had a
bachelor's degree or higher. 5.6 percent of Hispanics held a graduate or advanced professional degree, as compared
to 14.3 percent of the non-Hispanic white population.
Economics: According to a 2019 U.S.
Census Bureau report, 24.4 percent of Hispanics, in comparison to 14.5 percent non-Hispanic whites, worked within
service occupations. 23.8 percent of Hispanics in comparison to 44.8 percent of whites worked in managerial or
professional occupations. Among full-time year-round workers in 2019, the average Hispanic/Latino median household
income was $55,658 in comparison to $71,644 for non-Hispanic white households. In 2019, the unemployment rate for
Hispanics was 5.1, as compared to 3.7 for non-Hispanic whites. In 2019, the U.S. Census Bureau reported that 17.2
percent of Hispanics in comparison to 9.0 percent of non-Hispanic whites were living at the poverty level.
Insurance Coverage: It is significant
to note that Hispanics have the highest uninsured rates of any racial or ethnic group within the United States. In
2019, the Census Bureau reported that 50.1 percent of Hispanics had private insurance coverage, as compared to 74.7
percent for non-Hispanic whites. Among Hispanic subgroups, examples of coverage varied as follows: 47.9 percent of
Mexicans, 56.3 percent of Puerto Ricans, 57.4 percent of Cubans, 41.7 percent of Central Americans. In 2019, 36.3
percent of all Hispanics had Medicaid or public health insurance coverage, as compared to 34.3 percent for
non-Hispanic whites. Public health insurance coverage varied among Hispanic subgroups: 36.4 percent of Mexicans,
43.7 percent of Puerto Ricans, 33.7 of Cubans, and 33.0 percent of Central Americans. Those without health
insurance coverage varied among Hispanic subgroups: 20.3 percent of Mexicans, 8.0 percent of Puerto Ricans, 14.0
percent of Cubans and 19.4 percent of Central Americans. In 2019, 18.7 percent of the Hispanic population was not
covered by health insurance, as compared to 6.3 percent of the non-Hispanic white population.
Health: According to Census Bureau
projections, the 2020 life expectancies at birth for Hispanics are 82.1 years, with 84.2 years for women, and 79.9
years for men. For non-Hispanic whites the projected life expectancies are 80.6 years, with 82.7 years for women,
and 78.4 years for men. Hispanic health is often shaped by factors such as language/cultural barriers, lack of
access to preventive care, and the lack of health insurance. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has
cited some of the leading causes of illness and death among Hispanics, including heart disease, cancer,
unintentional injuries (accidents), stroke, and diabetes. Some other health conditions and risk factors that
significantly affect Hispanics are asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, HIV/AIDS, obesity, suicide, and
Other Health Concerns: Hispanics have
higher rates of obesity than non-Hispanic whites. There also are disparities among Hispanic subgroups. For
instance, while the rate of low birth weight infants is lower for the total Hispanic population in comparison to
non-Hispanic whites, Puerto Ricans have a low birth weight rate that is almost twice that of non-Hispanic whites.
Also, Puerto Ricans suffer disproportionately from asthma, HIVAIDS and infant mortality. Mexican Americans suffer
disproportionately from diabetes.